We estimate a signaling game of xenophobic behaviors to understand how individual racial animus and perceived unacceptance of racial animus determine xenophobic behaviors in equilibrium. To identify our model, we design a survey about anti-Chinese xenophobia in the US during the Pandemic. We validate our estimates by comparing our model predictions with the causal estimates obtained from an information Randomized Controlled Trial. We ﬁnd raising perceived unacceptance is more eﬀective than suppressing racial animus at reducing most xenophobic behaviors. We quantify the eﬀects of a COVID infection on xenophobic behaviors in the short and long run.